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Modern PKC was first described publicly by Stanford University professor Martin Hellman and graduate student Whitfield Diffie in 1976.Their paper described a two-key crypto system in which two parties could engage in a secure communication over a non-secure communications channel without having to share a secret key.A block cipher is so-called because the scheme encrypts one block of data at a time using the same key on each block.In general, the same plaintext block will always encrypt to the same ciphertext when using the same key in a block cipher whereas the same plaintext will encrypt to different ciphertext in a stream cipher.The other key is designated the private key and is never revealed to another party.
In PKC, one of the keys is designated the public key and may be advertised as widely as the owner wants.As a result, the ECRYPT Stream Cipher Project (e STREAM) was created, which has approved a number of new stream ciphers for both software and hardware implementation.Similar but different is the Japanese Government Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committees (CRYPTREC) efforts to evaluate algorithms submitted for government and industry applications. Self-synchronizing stream ciphers calculate each bit in the keystream as a function of the previous n bits in the keystream.
Stream ciphers come in several flavors but two are worth mentioning here (Figure 2). Stream ciphers operate on a single bit (byte or computer word) at a time and implement some form of feedback mechanism so that the key is constantly changing.